Psychology, Politics, and National Security
Loading

Featured Posts        



categories        



Links        



archives        



meta        




Aug 14th, 2014




U.S. Military Deaths in Afghanistan

As of Thursday, July 31, 2014, at least 2,338 members of the U.S. military had died in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan as a result of the invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001, according to iCasualties.org.

Since the start of U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, 17,674 U.S. service members have been wounded as of Sept. 30, 2012, according to iCasualties.org.

Latest identifications:


Army Pfc. Donnell A. Hamilton, Jr., 20, Kenosha, Wisconsin, died July 24, 2014 at Brooke Army Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas, from an illness contracted in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas.


Army Staff Sgt. Benjamin G. Prange, 30, Hickman, Neb., died July 24, 2014 in Mirugol Kalay, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan, of wounds suffered when the enemy attacked his vehicle with an improvised explosive device. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colo.


Army Pfc. Keith M. Williams, 19, Visalia, Calif., died July 24, 2014 in Mirugol Kalay, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan, of wounds suffered when the enemy attacked his vehicle with an improvised explosive device. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colo.

————————————

AUGUST UPDATES


Army Green Beret Staff Sgt. Girard D. Gass Jr., Lumber Bridge, North Carolina, died Aug. 3, 2014 in Jalalabad Air Field Hospital, Afghanistan, from a noncombat-related incident sustained while on patrol in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group, Fort Bragg, North Carolina.


Army Maj. Gen. Harold J. Greene, 55, Schenectady, N.Y., died Aug. 5, 2014 in Kabul, Afghanistan, of wounds caused by small-arms fire in an insider attack in Kabul, Afghanistan. He was assigned as deputy commanding general of Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan.


Army Sgt. 1st Class Samuel C. Hairston, 35, Houston, Texas, died Aug. 12, 2014 in Ghazni, Afghanistan, of injuries sustained when his unit was engaged by enemy small-arms fire. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, N.C.

Remember Their Sacrifice

Remember Their Sacrifice

Related links

Iraq Casualties

Afghanistan Casualties

Honor the Fallen

Click to visit the Military Times Hall of Valor

Visit Military Times — The top source for military news

Faces of the Dead
An interactive look at each U.S. service member who died in Afghanistan or Iraq



U.S. Military Deaths in Afghanistan

As of Monday, June 30, 2014, at least 2,335 members of the U.S. military had died in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan as a result of the invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001, according to iCasualties.org.

Since the start of U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, 17,674 U.S. service members have been wounded as of Sept. 30, 2012, according to iCasualties.org.

Latest identifications:


Army Green Beret Capt. Jason B. Jones, 29, Orwigsburg, Pennsylvania, died June 2, 2014 in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, of wounds received from small-arms fire. He was assigned 1st Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group (Airborne), Fort Bragg, North Carolina.


Army Pfc. Matthew H. Walker, 20, Hillsboro, Missouri, died June 5, 2014 in Paktika province, Afghanistan, of wounds suffered when his unit was attacked by enemy fire. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, Kentucky.


Army Cpl. Justin R. Clouse, 22, Sprague, Washington, died June 9, 2014 in Gaza Village, Afghanistan, of wounds caused by aircraft friendly fire from an Air Force B-1 bomber while engaged in a combat operation. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado.


Army Spc. Justin R. Helton, 25, Beaver, Ohio, died June 9, 2014 in Gaza Village, Afghanistan, of wounds caused by aircraft friendly fire from an Air Force B-1 bomber while engaged in a combat operation. He was assigned to the 18th Ordnance Company, 192nd Ordnance Battalion, 52nd Ordnance Group, Fort Bragg, North Carolina.


Army Spc. Terry J. Hurne, 34, Merced, California, died June 9, 2014 in Logar province, Afghanistan, in a noncombat-related incident. He was assigned to the 710th Brigade Support Battalion, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, New York.


Army Green Beret Staff Sgt. Jason A. McDonald, 28, Butler, Georgia, died June 9, 2014 in Gaza Village, Afghanistan, of wounds caused by aircraft friendly fire from an Air Force B-1 bomber while engaged in a combat operation. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 5th Special Forces Group, Fort Campbell, Kentucky.


Army Green Beret Staff Sgt. Scott R. Studenmund, 24, Pasadena, California, died June 9, 2014 in Gaza Village, Afghanistan, of wounds caused by aircraft friendly fire from an Air Force B-1 bomber while engaged in a combat operation. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 5th Special Forces Group, Fort Campbell, Kentucky.


Army Pvt. Aaron S. Toppen, 19, Mokena, Illinois, died June 9, 2014 in Gaza Village, Afghanistan, of wounds caused by aircraft friendly fire from an Air Force B-1 bomber while engaged in a combat operation. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado.


Navy Boatswain’s Mate Seaman Yeshabel Villot-Carrasco, 23, Parma, Ohio, died as a result of a non-hostile incident June 19, 2014 aboard the destroyer USS James E. Williams (DDG-95) while the ship was underway in the Red Sea.


Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Brandon J. Garabrant, 19, Peterborough, New Hampshire, died June 20, 2014 while conducting combat operations in Helmand province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.


Marine Corps Staff Sgt. David H. Stewart, 34, Stafford, Virginia, died June 20, 2014 while conducting combat operations in Helmand province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.


Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Adam F. Wolff, 25, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, died June 20, 2014 while conducting combat operations in Helmand province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.


Marine Corps Sgt. Thomas Z. Spitzer, 23, New Braunfels, Texas, died June 25, 2014 while conducting combat operations in Helmand province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Twentynine Palms, California.

Remember Their Sacrifice

Remember Their Sacrifice

Related links

Iraq Casualties

Afghanistan Casualties

Honor the Fallen

Click to visit the Military Times Hall of Valor

Visit Military Times — The top source for military news

Faces of the Dead
An interactive look at each U.S. service member who died in Afghanistan or Iraq



Vanished Minnesotans: 147 Missing Persons


June 6, 2014

This week’s renewed search for a Maple Grove girl [Amy Sue Pagnac] who disappeared 25 years ago and the discovery of the bones of a missing man in Lakeville last month made me wonder how many Minnesotans are currently considered missing persons. Minnesota’s state clearinghouse only displays about 70 faces. I found a more comprehensive list at the National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs), a web site that collects information from medical examiners and law enforcement around the country. It has two main categories of data: missing persons, and unidentified remains. There’s a smaller third group, called “unclaimed persons,” in which people are identified, but no one has come forward to take possession of the remains.

The Minnesota missing persons list includes 147 names, dating back to June 14, 1963, the day Martin Franzel, then 77, took his usual early morning walk in Minneapolis and vanished without a trace. The most recent addition is Cody Christie, 20, who was last seen leaving a relative’s home in Hinckley on foot on May 12 of this year. The youngest were 2-year-old Aaron Anderson, last seen playing in his yard in Pine City on April 7, 1989, and 2-year-old Kyle Jansen, whose footprints were found leading down to the bank of the Maple River in Mankato on Dec. 22, 1991.

I look at each one of these faces and imagine the circles of grief in the families and friends left behind. Remarkably, this kind of national clearinghouse has only been around for nine years or so, but it’s already contributing to a phenomenon of the modern age: advances in communication and forensic science mean it’s harder than ever to remain a missing person in America.

James Eli Shiffer, the Star Tribune’s watchdog and data editor, digs into data and documents to uncover the news. Reach him at 612-673-4116, james.shiffer@startribune.com or follow him on Twitter at @jameselishiffer.

————————————————

Related reports on this site

Minnesota Missing Person Linkage Analysis (June 22, 2011)


Missing Person Joshua Guimond (Nov. 7, 2009)



U.S. Military Deaths in Afghanistan

As of Saturday, May 31, 2014, at least 2,323 members of the U.S. military had died in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan as a result of the invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001, according to iCasualties.org.

Since the start of U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, 17,674 U.S. service members have been wounded as of Sept. 30, 2012, according to iCasualties.org.

Latest identifications:


Army Pfc. Daniela Rojas, 19, Los Angeles, California, died May 3, 2014 in Homburg, Germany, due to a noncombat-related illness. She was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado.


Army Chief Warrant Officer 2 Deric M. Rasmussen, 33, Oceanside, California, died May 11, 2014 in Mazar E Sharif, Afghanistan, as the result in a non-combat incident. He was assigned to the Company C, 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment, 1st Air Cavalry Brigade, Fort Hood, Texas.


Army Command Sgt. Maj. Martin R. Barreras, 49, Tucson, Arizona, died May 13, 2014 in San Antonio Military Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas, from wounds suffered on May 6, in Harat Province, Afghanistan, when enemy forces attacked his unit with small-arms fire. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, Fort Bliss, Texas.


Army Spc. Adrian M. Perkins, 19, Pine Valley, California, died May 17, 2014 in Amman, Jordan, from a noncombat- related injury. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 67th Armor Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado.


Army Pfc. Jacob H. Wykstra, 21, Thornton, Colorado, died May 28, 2014 in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan, of injuries sustained as the result of an aircraft accident. He was assigned 1st Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado.

Remember Their Sacrifice

Remember Their Sacrifice

Related links

Iraq Casualties

Afghanistan Casualties

Honor the Fallen

Click to visit the Military Times Hall of Valor

Visit Military Times — The top source for military news

Faces of the Dead
An interactive look at each U.S. service member who died in Afghanistan or Iraq



U.S. Military Deaths in Afghanistan

As of Wednesday, April 30, 2014, at least 2,319 members of the U.S. military had died in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan as a result of the invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001, according to iCasualties.org.

Since the start of U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, 17,674 U.S. service members have been wounded as of Sept. 30, 2012, according to iCasualties.org.

Latest identifications:


Army Capt. James E. Chaffin III, 27, West Columbia, S.C., died April 1, 2014 in Kandahar, Afghanistan, of a noncombat-related incident. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, N.C.


Army Spc. Kerry M. G. Danyluk, 27, Cuero, Texas, died April 15, 2014 at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Germany, of injuries sustained April 12 when enemy forces attacked his unit with small-arms fire in Pul-e-Alam, Logar province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, N.Y.


Army Pfc. Christian J. Chandler, 20, Trenton, Texas, died April 28, 2014 in Baraki Barak District, Logar province, Afghanistan, when enemy forces attacked his unit with small-arms fire. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (Light), Fort Drum, New York.


Army Sgt. Shawn M. Farrell II, 24, Accord, New York, died April 28, 2014 in Nejrab District, Kapisa province, Afghanistan, of wounds sustained when enemy forces attacked his unit with small-arms fire. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 32nd Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (Light), Fort Drum, New York.

Remember Their Sacrifice

Remember Their Sacrifice

Related links

Iraq Casualties

Afghanistan Casualties

Honor the Fallen

Click to visit the Military Times Hall of Valor

Visit Military Times — The top source for military news

Faces of the Dead
An interactive look at each U.S. service member who died in Afghanistan or Iraq



U.S. Military Deaths in Afghanistan

As of Monday, March 31, 2014, at least 2,315 members of the U.S. military had died in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan as a result of the invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001, according to iCasualties.org.

Since the start of U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, 17,674 U.S. service members have been wounded as of Sept. 30, 2012, according to iCasualties.org.

Identifications: None

No U.S. military deaths were reported in Afghanistan for the month of March, 2014.

No U.S. service member died in Afghanistan in March 2014.

Remember Their Sacrifice

Remember Their Sacrifice

Related links

Iraq Casualties

Afghanistan Casualties

Honor the Fallen

Click to visit the Military Times Hall of Valor

Visit Military Times — The top source for military news

Faces of the Dead
An interactive look at each U.S. service member who died in Afghanistan or Iraq



The Personality Profile  of Russian President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
(Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин)

Aubrey Immelman
Unit for the Study of Personality in Politics
March 2014

VladimirPutinNewYear2012-2.png

A remotely conducted empirical psychological assessment of Russian leader Vladimir Putin is currently in progress, using the third edition of the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM–V.

Informal observation suggests that Putin is a highly dominant leader. However, more systematic observation is required to establish whether he is an introvert or an extravert.

If Putin is a dominant introvert, which appears to be the case [confirmed 7/30/2014], the following personality-based leadership profile would apply:

In terms of Lloyd Etheredge’s (1978) fourfold typology of personality-based foreign policy role orientations, which locates policymakers on the dimensions of dominance–submission and introversion–extraversion, high-dominance introverts (in American politics, presidents such as Woodrow Wilson and Herbert Hoover) are quite willing to use military force, tending

to divide the world, in their thought, between the moral values they think it ought to exhibit and the forces opposed to this vision. They tend to have a strong, almost Manichean, moral component to their views. They tend to be described as stubborn and tenacious. They seek to reshape the world in accordance with their personal vision, and their foreign policies are often characterized by the tenaciousness with which they advance one central idea. … [These leaders] seem relatively preoccupied with themes of exclusion, the establishment of institutions or principles to keep potentially disruptive forces in check. (p. 449; italics in original)

Etheredge’s high-dominance introvert is similar in character to Margaret Hermann’s (1987) expansionist orientation to foreign affairs. These leaders have a view of the world as being “divided into ‘us’ and ‘them,’ ” based on a belief system in which conflict is viewed as inherent in the international system. This world view prompts a personal political style characterized by a “wariness of others’ motives” and a directive, controlling interpersonal orientation, resulting in a foreign policy “focused on issues of security and status,” favoring “low-commitment actions” and espousing “short-term, immediate change in the international arena.” Expansionist leaders “are not averse to using the ‘enemy’ as a scapegoat” and their rhetoric often may be “hostile in tone” (pp. 168–169).

If, on the other hand, Putin turns out to be a dominant extravert [which is not the case; 7/30/2014 update], the following thumbnail sketch would apply:

High-dominance extraverts (such as U.S. presidents Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon Johnson) share high-dominance introverts’ tendency “to use military force”

[b]ut in general … are more flexible and pragmatic, more varied in the wide range and scope of major foreign policy initiatives. … [In contrast to high-dominance introverts, they] want to lead rather than contain. They advocate change, seek to stir up things globally. … [and] are relatively more interested in inclusion [compared with high-dominance introverts, who favor exclusion], initiating programs and institutions for worldwide leadership and cooperative advance on a wide range of issues. (p. 449)

From the perspective of Hermann’s (1987) sixfold typology, the best fit for the high-dominance extravert is the active-independent orientation to foreign affairs. These leaders, though recognizing the importance of other countries, are self-reliant and prefer to participate in international affairs on their own terms and without engendering a dependent relationship with other countries (p. 168).

In terms of personal political style, they “[s]eek a variety of information before making a decision; examine carefully the possible consequences of alternatives under consideration for dealing with a problem; [and] cultivate relationships with a diverse group of nations” (Hermann, 1987, p. 169).

The foreign policy resulting from an active-independent orientation is generally “focused on economic and security issues.” These leaders’ behaviors are “usually positive in tone but involves little commitment” because they “shun commitments that limit maneuverability and … independence” (Hermann, 1987, p. 169).

In summary, preliminary findings [confirmed 7/30/2014] suggest that Putin is more of an expansionist than an active-independent leader.

References

Etheredge, L. S. (1978). Personality effects on American foreign policy, 1898–1968: A test of interpersonal generalization theory. American Political Science Review, 72, 434–451.

Hermann, M. G. (1987). Assessing the foreign policy role orientations of sub-Saharan African leaders. In S. G. Walker (Ed.), Role theory and foreign policy analysis (pp. 161–198). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

———————————————————————————

April 25, 2014 Update: Pilot Study Completed

Putin-poster
Click on image for larger view

——————————————————————————

July 30, 2014 Update: Full Study Completed

Following additional data collection by summer research fellow Joe Trenzeluk during the months of June and July, the psychological assessment of Russian leader Vladimir Putin has been completed. The next phase of the study, to be conducted during the month of August, will be to elaborate on Putin’s leadership style, employing his personality profile as a temporally and cross-situationally stable framework for anticipating his future political behavior.

Putin-poster_revised
Click on image for larger view

Joe Trenzeluk presents his research on ?The personality profile of Russian president Vladimir Putin? at the Undergraduate Research Poster Session, Great Hall, St. John?s University, Collegeville, Minn., Aug. 6, 2014.
Joe Trenzeluk presents his research on “The personality profile of Russian president Vladimir Putin” at the Undergraduate Research Poster Session, Great Hall, St. John’s University, Collegeville, Minn., Aug. 6, 2014.

————————————————

Russia’s Military Capability

Comparing the Military Capability of Putin’s Russia With the Soviet Union’s

By Adam Taylor

March 27, 2014


Click for report full-scale graphics

——————————————————

July 2, 2014 — Related report

Putin Should Prepare Himself for Clinton

If Clinton Is Elected President, Russia’s Putin Will Be In for Rude Awakening

View image on Twitter
A July 31, 2014 tweet from the account of Dmitry Rogozin, deputy prime minister of Russia, ridiculed Obama by juxtaposing an image of the Russian president with a cheetah and another of his American counterpart holding a puppy. (Image added; not part of St. Cloud Times article)

By Joe Trenzeluk
St. Cloud Times
June 28, 2014

The past few months have sparked heated debate regarding President Obama’s handling of foreign policy, specifically the crisis in Ukraine and his negotiations, or lack thereof, with Vladimir Putin.

Critics have accused Obama of appearing weak and passive, imposing feeble sanctions and essentially letting Putin’s expansionism go unchecked. From their perspective, Obama is not a president who adversaries fear, but a mere annoyance who the tough, Judo-champion, ex-KGB Russian president easily can swat aside.

This mismatch between the world’s two most powerful men (according to Forbes’ latest rankings) should come as no surprise. Studies of Obama’s personality conducted at the Unit for the Study of Personality in Politics show that, not unlike Putin and many other world leaders, Obama is an ambitious individual. However, the key difference between the personalities of Obama and Putin is an accommodating tendency on Obama’s part, in stark contrast to Putin’s strongly dominant personality pattern.

Accommodating leaders like Obama have a strong preference for negotiation over force.

Hard-nosed Putin

Although this predisposition can be a net positive under some situations, when dealing with hard-nosed individuals such as Putin, it can spell trouble. The ambitious, controlling, opportunistic Putin is sure to take advantage of Obama’s accommodating nature.

Political-psychological studies suggest that putative 2016 presidential candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton may be better suited than Obama to deal with Putin.

Comparing Clinton and Obama head-to-head, it is evident both are highly ambitious. However, where Obama is accommodating, Clinton is highly dominant.

The political implication of this personality difference is that Clinton would likely deal with Putin from a position of strength and articulate her position bluntly and with clarity, while refusing to let Putin outmaneuver her.

Granted, one could argue Clinton’s personal style — specifically her tendency to be assertively uncompromising — would run the risk of adding fuel to the fire, escalating the standoff with Russia over its annexation of Crimea.

Hardball Hillary

In reality, however, Clinton’s psychological profile underscores that she is a dutiful individual who would exercise due diligence in dealing with Putin and proceed prudently when playing hardball politics.

Putin, whose personality profile reveals a thin-skinned person who handles criticism poorly and becomes defensive, would be thrown off balance by the direct confrontation on which Clinton thrives.

Significant personality contrasts between Obama and Clinton offer insight into the political implications of their respective personal political styles. The politics of conciliation characteristic of Obama will likely wane in the next administration. Having been accustomed to the relative ease of dealing with the more conflict-averse Obama for the better part of a decade, Putin will be in for a rude awakening if Clinton is to hold the reins of power in the post-Obama era.

This is the opinion of Joe Trenzeluk, Inver Grove Heights, a junior psychology major at the College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University, where he is a summer research fellow in the Unit for the Study of Personality in Politics, directed by Aubrey Immelman.

———————————————————

August 4, 2014 — Related report

Profile Hints at Putin Mindset

Russian president’s ambitious nature means he’ll never let West get ahead of him

Putin_AP-via-StCloudTimes
Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks Friday, Aug. 1, 2014 at the opening ceremony of the monument to the Heroes of World War I, behind him, on the day of the 100th anniversary of its beginning in Victory Park on Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow, Russia. (Photo credit: AP via St. Cloud Times)

By Joe Trenzeluk
St. Cloud Times
August 3, 2014

On July 17, 298 innocent victims were killed when Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 was shot down over Ukraine. As attempts to investigate the incident continue, international pressure has been placed on Russian President Vladimir Putin because it is believed the Russian military supplied Ukrainian pro-Russia separatists with the Buk surface-to-air missiles that downed the airliner.

Putin issued a statement that Russia will do “everything in its power” to assist with the investigation and offered his condolences to people who lost loved ones in the tragedy.

If Putin’s role in the current crisis in Ukraine, his relations with the Syrian regime and pro-Assad Iran, and ongoing reports of human rights violations in Russia are not enough to call into question Putin’s character and leadership qualities, the downing of Flight MH17 certainly has.

Empirical analysis of Putin’s personality at the College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University’s Unit for the Study of Personality in Politics reveals that Putin is a highly dominant, narcissistic leader with secondary features of high conscientiousness and substantial introversion.

In a nutshell, leaders of this kind may be labeled “ambitious (or expansionist) hostile enforcers.”

Identifying the personality configuration of political leaders matters because personality points to stable, enduring patterns in a person’s motives, thoughts and actions over time and across situations. Thus, accurate personality assessment allows us to anticipate a leader’s response to a broad range of contingencies.

Expansionist leader

In terms of foreign policy role orientation, the “high-dominance introvert” facet of Putin’s personality parallels what political psychologist Margaret Hermann has labeled an expansionist leader. Expansionists, like Adolf Hitler or Saddam Hussein, see the world as being “divided into ‘us’ and ‘them,’ ” based on a belief system in which conflict is viewed as inherent in the international system.

This worldview prompts a personal political style characterized by a “wariness of others’ motives” and a directive, controlling interpersonal orientation, resulting in a foreign policy “focused on issues of security and status,” favoring “low-commitment actions” and espousing “short-term, immediate change in the international arena.”

Expansionist leaders, according to Hermann, “are not averse to using the ‘enemy’ as a scapegoat,” and their rhetoric often may be “hostile in tone.”

Other common characteristics of expansionists include a high degree of power motivation, strong nationalism, an unwavering belief in one’s ability to control events, supreme self-confidence, distrust of others, and a very goal-directed level of task orientation — all of which are evident to varying degrees in Putin’s personality profile.

Putin is Russia

Putin believes the world is divided between his Russia and the West, often using “the West” or “democracy” as a scapegoat for his problems. Rising through the KGB and Russia’s political elite, he entwined himself with the history of Russia. Typical of narcissistic leaders with exalted self-concept and dreams of glory, he views his destiny and that of the Russian state as one and the same. Putin is Russia; Russia is Putin.

Although Putin shows no discernible signs of contemplating genocide or waging conventional war — sensation-seeking adventurousness ranks relatively low in his overall personality profile — he displays a desire for control and deeply entrenched feelings of resentment toward the West.

His world is a zero-sum game in which any gains by the West or by domestic opponents are considered moral threats to his power.

This is the opinion of Joe Trenzeluk, Inver Grove Heights, a junior psychology major at the College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University, where he is a summer research fellow in the Unit for the Study of Personality in Politics, directed by Aubrey Immelman.

————————————————

Topical reports on this site

Personality Profile: Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama

Barack Obama’s Presidential Leadership Style (Sept. 8, 2012)


Click on image for larger view

A psychological profile of U.S. President Barack Obama, developed at the Unit for the Study of Personality in Politics during Obama’s 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns, reveals that the president is a highly confident, moderately accommodating and deliberative, somewhat reserved personality type best described as a confident conciliator.


Click on image for larger display

As shown in the pie chart above, Obama is primarily an Ambitious/confident personality, complemented by secondary Accommodating/cooperative, Conscientious/respectful, and Retiring/reserved features.

A Key to Success for Obama? (March 17, 2009)

Barack Obama’s Leadership Style (Feb. 21, 2009)

Barack Obama’s Decision-Making Style (Nov. 25, 2008)

Barack Obama’s Personality Profile (Nov. 2, 2008)

Full report: The Political Personality of U.S. President Barack Obama (PDF)

A tweet from the account of Dmitry Rogozin, deputy prime minister of Russia, ridiculed Obama by juxtaposing an image of the Russian president with a cheetah and another of his American counterpart holding a puppy.

A tweet from the account of Dmitry Rogozin, deputy prime minister of Russia, ridiculed Obama by juxtaposing an image of the Russian president with a cheetah and another of his American counterpart holding a puppy.

A tweet from the account of Dmitry Rogozin, deputy prime minister of Russia, ridiculed Obama by juxtaposing an image of the Russian president with a cheetah and another of his American counterpart holding a puppy.



U.S. Military Deaths in Afghanistan

As of Friday, February 28, 2014, at least 2,315 members of the U.S. military had died in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan as a result of the invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001, according to iCasualties.org.

Since the start of U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, 17,674 U.S. service members have been wounded as of Sept. 30, 2012, according to iCasualties.org.

Latest identifications:


Army Pfc. Joshua A. Gray, 21, Van Lear, Ky., died Feb. 10, 2014 at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan, from a noncombat-related incident. He was a satellite communications system operator-maintainer assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, N.Y.


Army Spc. Christopher A. Landis, 27, Independence, Ky., died Feb. 10, 2014 at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan, from wounds received when the enemy attacked his dismounted patrol with a rocket-propelled grenade in Kapisa Province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group (Airborne), Fort Bragg, N.C.


Army Spc. John A. Pelham, 22, Portland, Ore., died Feb. 12, 2014 in Kapisa Province, Afghanistan, of wounds suffered when he was struck by enemy small-arms fire in an “insider attack” by gunmen wearing Afghan security force uniforms. He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group (Airborne), Fort Bragg, N.C.


Army Sgt. 1st Class Roberto C. Skelt, 41, York, Fla., died Feb. 12, 2014 in Kapisa Province, Afghanistan, of wounds suffered when he was struck by enemy small-arms fire in an “insider attack” by gunmen wearing Afghan security force uniforms. He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group (Airborne), Fort Bragg, N.C.


Marine Corps Master Sgt. Aaron C. Torian, 36, Paducah, Ky., died Feb. 15, 2014 while conducting combat operations in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to 2nd Marine Special Operations Battalion, Marine Special Operations Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command, Camp Lejeune, N.C.


Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Caleb L. Erickson, 20, Waseca, Minn., died Feb. 28, 2014 while conducting combat operations in Helmand province, Afghanistan. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, N.C.


Air National Guard Master Sgt. David L. Poirier, 52, North Smithfield, R.I., died Feb. 28, 2014 from a noncombat-related incident at an undisclosed location in Southwest Asia. He was assigned to the 157th Operations Support Squadron, Pease Air National Guard Base, N.H.

Remember Their Sacrifice

Remember Their Sacrifice

Related links

Iraq Casualties

Afghanistan Casualties

Honor the Fallen

Click to visit the Military Times Hall of Valor

Visit Military Times — The top source for military news

Faces of the Dead
An interactive look at each U.S. service member who died in Afghanistan or Iraq


Feb 7th, 2014

Theodore Millon, a Student of Personality, Dies at 85


Theodore Millon (Photo: The New York Times)

By

February 1, 2014

Theodore Millon, a psychologist whose theories helped define how scientists think about personality and its disorders, and who developed a widely used measure to analyze character traits, died on Wednesday [Jan. 29, 2014] at his home in Greenville Township, N.Y. He was 85.

The cause was complications of heart disease, his granddaughter Alyssa Boice said.

Dr. Millon (pronounced “Milan,” like the city in Italy) learned about the oddities of personality at first hand, by wandering the halls of Allentown State Hospital, a mental institution, after being named to the hospital’s board in the 1950s as a part an overhaul effort in Pennsylvania. A young assistant professor at nearby Lehigh University at the time, he “frequently ventured incognito through the hospital,” he wrote in an essay in 2001, “at times clothed in typical hospital garb overnight or for entire weekend periods, conversing at length with patients housed in a variety of acute and chronic wards.”

At the University of Illinois in the 1970s, he began to think and write more deeply about the patterns underlying specific character types that therapists had described: the narcissist, with fragile, grandiose self-approval; the dependent, with smothering clinginess; the histrionic, always in the thick of some drama, desperate to be the center of attention. By 1980, he had pulled together the bulk of the work on such so-called personality disorders, most of it descriptive, and turned it into a set of 10 standardized types [link added] for the American Psychiatric Association’s third diagnostic manual [DSM-III, Axis II].

Along the way he developed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI), which became the most commonly used diagnostic assessment for personality problems. It is still widely used today, in its third edition, the MCMI-III.

“He was a monumental figure in shaping the understanding of personality disorders,” said Thomas Widiger, a professor of psychology at the University of Kentucky. “Prior to Ted, there wasn’t any measure to speak of. He just dominated the field during a key period of its growth.”

Theodore Millon was born in Manhattan on Aug. 18, 1928, the only child of Abner Millon, a tailor, and the former Mollie Gorkowitz. He grew up in the Bensonhurst neighborhood of Brooklyn and graduated from Lafayette High School in 1945 before earning bachelor’s degrees in psychology, physics and philosophy at City College of New York. After graduating in 1950, he earned a Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut in 1953, the year after he married Renée Baratz. She survives him, as do three daughters, Diane Bobb, Dr. Carrie Millon [link added] and Adrienne Hemsley; a son, Andy; and eight grandchildren.

Loquacious and opinionated, Dr. Millon, who described himself as an exemplar of “secure narcissism,” became a kind of institution unto himself after laying a foundation for the study of personality disorders. He left the University of Illinois for the Coral Gables campus of the University of Miami, where — between visiting professorships at Harvard and McLean Hospital — he founded the Institute for Advanced Studies in Personology and Psychopathology, a platform to advance his ideas, publishing analyses, books and various personality assessments.

Dr. Millon wrote more than 25 books and co-wrote more than 50 academic papers. The American Psychological Association awarded him its Gold Medal Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2008.

In one of his books, an encyclopedia of behavioral scientists called “Masters of the Mind” (2004), he included an entry for “Theodore Millon (1928 — ).” Dr. Millon, he wrote of himself, was distinguished from many others in the book “by the fact that he appears, contrawise, to be invariably buoyant, if not jovial. Critics are not invariably enamored, however, finding his work to be, at times, too speculative, his writing unduly imaginative, and his creativity overly expansive.”

———

A version of this article appeared in print on February 1, 2014, on page A21 of the New York edition with the headline: Theodore Millon, a Student of Personality, Dies at 85.

———

Leading Personality Theorist, Psychologist and University of Miami Professor Theodore Millon Dies at 85


Theodore Millon at his favorite desk. (Photo courtesy of the Millon family)

By Howard Cohen
MiamiHerald.com
January 31, 2014

Theodore Millon’s most significant memory of his youth, he wrote in a 2001 autobiography for his family, instigated by the events of 9/11, was one of familial warmth.

Millon, a major figure in the field of psychology and the treatment of personality disorders, wrote: “[It] was my father’s all-consuming affection for me (the roots of my secure narcissism, I am sure), most charmingly illustrated by the fact that he brought home a gift for me (toy, game, book) every working day from the time I was 2 until I turned 13.”

Millon, who died Wednesday [Jan. 29, 2014] at his home in Greenville Township, N.Y., at age 85, was born in Manhattan as the only child to immigrant parents from Lithuania and Poland and raised in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn. He would use these memories of his formative years in the development of diagnostic questionnaire tools such as the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and earlier versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Assessment tools

These psychological assessment tools, for which he was a key contributor during his tenure with the Neuropsychiatric Institute of the University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago in the late 1960s and ‘70s, are still used by clinicians and researchers, along with psychiatric drug regulation agencies and pharmaceutical companies, the health insurance industry and the legal system to classify and understand various disorders.

“The profession’s acceptance of my upgraded assessment tools, especially the MCMI-III, has been exceptionally gratifying,” he wrote in his autobiography. “It ranks now second only to the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) and the Rorschach as the most frequently employed of the psychodiagnostic tools in this country.”

University of Miami

Millon, who moved to Coral Gables in the late  ‘70s, would enjoy a lengthy run as clinical psych director at the University of Miami “as a retirement position” beginning in 1977, but he was customarily productive. Along with Neil Schneiderman, a physiological psychologist, he established a doctoral clinical health psychology program at UM.

He was also a senior scientific scholar emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Personality and Psychopathology, and through his five-decade career taught at Lehigh and the University of Illinois and was a visiting professor at Harvard Medical School. He published more than 25 books, including his favorite, Masters of the Mind: Exploring the Story of Mental Illness from Ancient Times to the New Millennium (Wiley; $35), for which he led a reading at Coral Gables’ Books & Books in 2004. He earned his PhD from the University of Connecticut.

“Teaching became my professional  raison d’être, one which I loved from the start and one I continue to cherish to this waning day of my academic career,” he wrote in 2001.

Daughter Carrie Millon, of Pinecrest, followed her father’s lead into the field of psychology and worked with him at UM.

Arts passion

“He was an incredible man in so many ways,” she said. “You’re not supposed to brag … but what a brilliant, brilliant mind. He was the prototypical renaissance man.”

That’s because Millon was passionate about the arts, too. He loved acting, singing, painting, sculpting and was an art collector and classical music aficionado.

During high school, and as an undergrad at City College of New York, he was tempted into a theatrical or singing career — he sang with crooner Vic Damone and, as a kid, was best buddies with Maurice Sendak, an illustrator who would go on to fame with his children’s books, including Where the Wild Things Are, and the 1975 animated TV musical  Really Rosie with songwriter Carole King. These artsy vocations, his parents told him, were not befitting “a nice Jewish boy.” Academia and the field of psychology would have to do.

But what fun he had in that Bensonhurst neighborhood. He wrote of sharing “Harry Potter-like” adventures on the front steps of his friends’ homes. These pals included Sendak and Wally, the only African-American youngster in their neighborhood and Marvin, a quiet and intelligent boy with a severe speech and hearing impairment.

“Both were persona non-grata kids, poked fun at or completely shunned by both local peers and adults,” he remembered. “It was not any humanistic impulse or deviance on my part that drew me to them; I simply found both interesting and thoughtful peers.”

Legacy

Carrie Millon says that that love has been returned to the family in the numerous calls and correspondence that arrived from former students who learned that Millon’s health was failing.

“We’ve had such an incredible outpouring of support from all over the place,” she said. “His greatest legacy was his students. And in every single letter we received, every one of them said, ‘You’re like a father to me.’ He was an incredibly generous man and that’s coming back to us in droves.”

Millon is survived by his wife, Renée, whom he married in 1952, their children Diane Bobb, Carrie Millon, Andrew Millon, Adrienne Hemsley, eight grandchildren, five great-grandchildren and a niece and nephew. Services will be at 1 p.m. Sunday at Temple Sinai, 75 Highland Ave., Middletown, NY.

The family would like to place a bench in Millon’s honor in Central Park. To make a donation, instead of flowers, write Central Park Conservancy, Attn: Adopt-a-Bench, 14 E. 60th St., New York, NY 10022 and cite Theodore Millon Bench.

——————

OBITUARY

Dr. Theodore Millon, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Top Photo

August 18, 1928 — January 29, 2014

Greenville Township, NY

Leading Personality Theorist and Psychologist, Dr. Theodore Millon, passed away on January 29, 2014, at his home in Greenville Township, NY, after a remarkable life.

Dr. Millon was the author of over 25 books and the developer of numerous highly regarded diagnostic inventories including the MCMI. He was a key member of the DSM-III task force and of the DSM-IV’s workgroup on personality disorders. Dr. Millon was a Senior Scientific Scholar Emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Personality and Psychopathology, having served previously over a fifty-year sequence of professorial appointments at Lehigh, University of Illinois, University of Miami and Harvard. He received over twenty lifetime achievement awards, including APF’s Gold Medal for Lifetime Achievement in Applied Research, APA’s Distinguished Award for Applied Psychological Science, as well as its 2000 Presidential Citation.

Theodore was born in Manhattan on August 28, 1928 to Abner and Mollie (Gorkowitz) Millon. He was raised in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn where he graduated from Lafayette High School in 1945. He earned his BA from the City College of New York ’49 and his Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut ’52 and later received an Honorary Doctorate from the Free University of Brussels ’94.

He had a keen interest in art and was a man of many talents and interests. He loved acting and singing and was a painter, sculptor and collector of art.  Dr. Millon was a classical music aficionado, followed professional sports and studied physics as a hobby.

In 1952 he married Renée Baratz. Although he was an admirable scholar, his role as a husband, father and grandfather was just as important to him. He was a kind, loving and generous man who cared deeply for his family. He is predeceased by his parents. In addition to his wife, he is survived by his children, Diane Bobb (Allen) of Greenville, NY; Dr. Carrie Millon of Pinecrest, FL; Andy Millon of Brooklyn, NY; Adrienne Hemsley (Martin) of White Plains, NY; a niece, Linda Shultz (David); a nephew, David Grabel; his grandchildren: Alyssa Boice (Rory), Katherine Sinsabaugh (Joseph), Molly Niedbala, Olivia Niedbala, Elizabeth Levin, Matthew Hemsley, Annie Hemsley, William Hemsley, and five great-grandchildren. He will not only be missed by his family, but by the many colleagues and students whose lives he influenced. His legacy was far reaching and will carry on. The family would also like to thank his caregivers, Leila Agustin and Elizabeth Grennille, for extending his life and bringing him great comfort.

A private memorial service will be held.  In lieu of flowers, those wishing to make a donation may do so to the Central Park Conservancy, Attn: Adopt-A-Bench, 14 East 60th Street, New York, NY 10022.  Please write “Theodore Millon Bench” in the memo line, or call 212-310-6617.

———————————

PHOTO GALLERY

Ted Millon as a young professor in 1962. (Photo courtesy of Theodore Millon)
Ted Millon as a young professor in 1962.
(Photo courtesy of Theodore Millon)

Millon-DSc_1994
Theodore Millon receives an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Dean Hedwig Sloore at the Free University of Brussels, 1994. (Photo courtesy of Theodore Millon)


Ted Millon, Ray Fowler (Executive Director Emeritus of the American Psychological Association), and Mel Sabshin (Medical Director Emeritus of the American Psychiatric Association) during Millon’s Festschrift weekend, Miami, Oct. 2003. (Photo courtesy of Theodore Millon)


Dr. Theodore Millon receives the Gold Medal Award for Lifetime Achievement
in the Application of Psychology at the 2008 annual meeting of the American
Psychological Association in Boston, Mass.

—————————————

Books and Other Media

Disorders of Personality cover Toward a New Personology cover Masters of the Mind cover

——————————————————

PERSONAL REMINISCENCES

In preparation. Please check back.


With Ted Millon at an Institute for Advanced Studies in Personology and Psychopathology workshop, Oct. 17, 2002.

—————————————————————————————————————————

RELATED TRIBUTE 

James MacGregor Burns, Scholar of Presidents and Leadership, Dies at 95


Historian James MacGregor Burns at his home in Williamstown, Mass., in 2007.
(Photo credit: Nathaniel Brooks / Associated Press via The New York Times)

By Bruce Weber

July 16, 2014

James MacGregor Burns, a Pulitzer Prize-winning biographer and political scientist who wrote voluminously about the nature of leadership in general and the presidency in particular, died on Tuesday [July 15, 2014] at his home in Williamstown, Mass. He was 95.

The historian Michael Beschloss, a friend and former student, confirmed the death.

Mr. Burns, who taught at Williams College for most of the last half of the 20th century, was the author of more than 20 books, most notably “Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom” (1970), a major study of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s stewardship of the country through World War II. It was awarded both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award.

An informal adviser to presidents, Mr. Burns was a liberal Democrat who once ran for Congress from the westernmost district of Massachusetts. Though he sometimes wrote prescriptively from — or for — the left, over all he managed the neat trick of neither hiding his political viewpoint in his work nor funneling his work through it.


Mr. Burns had unrestricted access to John F. Kennedy.
(Photo credit: William H. Tague via The New York Times)

His work was often critical of American government and its system of checks and balances, which in his view had become an obstacle to visionary progress, particularly when used by a divided or oppositional Congress as a rein on the presidency. In works like “The Deadlock of Democracy” (1963) and “Packing the Court: The Rise of Judicial Power and the Coming Crisis of the Supreme Court” (2009), he argued for systemic changes, calling for a population-based Senate, term limits for Supreme Court justices and an end to midterm elections.

The nature of leadership was his fundamental theme throughout his career. In his biographies of Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy and Edward M. Kennedy, among others, and in his works of political theory — including “Leadership,” a seminal 1978 work melding historical analysis and contemporary observation that became a foundation text for an academic discipline — Mr. Burns focused on parsing the relationship between the personalities of the powerful and the historical events they helped engender.

His award-winning Roosevelt biography, for example, was frank in its admiration of its subject. But the book nonetheless distilled, with equal frankness, Roosevelt’s failings and character flaws; it faulted him for not seizing the moment and cementing the good relations between the United States and the Soviet Union when war had made them allies. This lack of foresight, Mr. Burns argued, was a primary cause of the two nations’ drift into the Cold War.

Roosevelt “was a deeply divided man,” he wrote, “divided between the man of principle, of ideals, of faith, crusading for a distant vision, on the one hand; and, on the other, the man of Realpolitik, of prudence, of narrow, manageable, short-run goals, intent always on protecting his power and authority in a world of shifting moods and capricious fortune.”

This was typical of Mr. Burns, who wrote audaciously, for a historian, with an almost therapistlike interpretation of the historical characters under his scrutiny and saw conflict but no contradiction in the conflicting and sometimes contradictory impulses of great men. He could admire a president for his politics and his leadership skills, yet report on his inherent shortcomings, as he did with Roosevelt; or spot a lack of political courage that undermined a promising presidency, as he did with President Bill Clinton and his vice president, Al Gore, in “Dead Center: Clinton–Gore Leadership and the Perils of Moderation,” written with Georgia Jones Sorenson. In the book, he chastised both men for yielding their liberal instincts too easily.

In “The Power to Lead: The Crisis of the American Presidency,” his 1984 book about the dearth of transforming leaders, as opposed to transactional ones, in contemporary America, Mr. Burns was able to denounce the outlook of a staunch conservative like President Ronald Reagan but admire him for his instinctive leadership — his understanding of not just how to maneuver the levers of power but also how to muster party unity and effect an attitudinal shift in society.

This distinction between transforming and transactional leadership was central to Mr. Burns’s political theorizing. As he explained it in “Leadership,” the transactional leader is the more conventional politician, a horse trader with his followers, offering jobs for votes, say, or support of important legislation in exchange for campaign contributions.

The transforming leader, on the other hand, “looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower,” Mr. Burns wrote.

“The result of transforming leadership,” he went on, “is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents.”

If there was any way in which Mr. Burns’s personal views pierced his objectivity as a writer and researcher, it was in his understanding of the human elements of leadership. He had faith in the potential for human greatness, and though he often scolded presidents, congressmen and party officials for failing to strive for progress, one could discern in his writing a pleading for great men and women to lead with greatness.

“That people can be lifted into their better selves,” he wrote at the end of “Leadership,” “is the secret of transforming leadership and the moral and practical theme of this work.”

Mr. Burns was born on Aug. 3, 1918, in Melrose, Mass., outside Boston. His father, Robert, a businessman, and his mother, the former Mildred Bunce, came from Republican families, though Mr. Burns described her as holding feminist principles. She largely raised him, in Burlington, Mass., after his parents’ divorce, and it was she, he said, who instilled in him the independence of mind to oppose the political views prevalent in his father’s family.

“I rebelled early,” Mr. Burns told the television interviewer Brian Lamb in 1989. “I got a lot of attention simply because I sat at the dinner table making these outrageous statements that they never heard anybody make face to face.” He added, “There was a lot of very strenuous and sometimes angry debate within the household.”

After graduating from Williams, Mr. Burns went to Washington and worked as a congressional aide. He served as an Army combat historian in the Pacific during World War II, receiving a Bronze Star, and afterward earned a Ph.D. from Harvard. He did postdoctoral work at the London School of Economics. His first book, “Congress on Trial: The Legislative Process and the Administrative State,” a critical appraisal of American lawmaking, was published in 1949.

After his second book, “Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox” (1956), a study of the president’s early years, Mr. Burns ran for Congress in 1958 from a western Massachusetts district that had not elected a Democrat since 1896 — and it did not again.

During the campaign he became acquainted with John F. Kennedy, then running for his second term as senator from Massachusetts. After the election, with unrestricted access to Kennedy, his staff and his records, he wrote “John Kennedy: A Political Profile,” an assessment of him as a potential president. Though the book was largely favorable, it was not the hagiography the Kennedy family and presidential campaign had anticipated. (“I think you underestimate him,” Jacqueline Kennedy wrote to him after she read it, adding: “Can’t you see he is exceptional?”)

After Kennedy’s assassination, Mr. Burns said frequently that Kennedy had been a great leader and would have been even greater had he lived. But in his book he called Kennedy “a rationalist and an intellectual” and questioned whether he had the character strength to exert what he called “moral leadership.”

“What great idea does Kennedy personify?” he wrote. “In what way is he a leader of thought? How could he supply moral leadership at a time when new paths before the nation need discovering?”

In 1978, after a half-dozen more books, including the second Roosevelt volume and separate studies of the presidency and of state and local governments, Mr. Burns wrote “Leadership,” an amalgamation of a lifetime of thinking about the qualities shared and exemplified by world leaders throughout history. It became a standard academic text in the emerging discipline known as leadership studies, and Mr. Burns’s concept of transforming leadership itself became the subject of hundreds of doctoral theses.

“It inspires our work,” Georgia Sorenson, who founded the Center for Political Leadership and Participation at the University of Maryland, said of “Leadership.” She persuaded Mr. Burns, who was on her dissertation committee, to teach there in 1993, and four years later the university renamed the center in his honor; it is now an independent nonprofit organization, the James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership.

Mr. Burns’s two marriages ended in divorce. He is survived by three children and his companion, Susan Dunn, with whom he collaborated on “The Three Roosevelts” and a biography of George Washington, two of the half-dozen or so books Mr. Burns wrote or co-wrote after the age of 80. His last book, “Fire and Light: How the Enlightenment Transformed Our World,” was published in 2013.

Asked to describe Mr. Burns’s passions away from his writing, Ms. Sorenson named skiing; his two golden retrievers, Jefferson and Roosevelt; the blueberry patch in his yard; and his students.

“He would never bump a student appointment to meet with someone more important,” Ms. Sorenson said. “I remember Hillary Clinton once inviting him to tea, and he wouldn’t go because he had to meet with a student. And he would never leave his place in Williamstown during blueberry season.”

A version of this article appears in print on July 16, 2014, on page A20 of the New York edition with the headline: James MacGregor Burns, Scholar of Leaders and Leadership, Dies at 95.

Read the obituary in The New York Times